APPLICATION: THIXOTROPY

 

Breaking and Rebuilding...Maybe

Thixotropy investigations are very helpful to provide insight into the effects of product manufacturing processes, handling, and dispensing. In this analysis, the sample is subjected to various shear rates to model situations that typically cause thinning. The extent of rebuilding, or lack thereof, is then determined. Depending on the product purpose, the desired rebuild time and extent after shear thinning will range between immediate and never.  This test can also be used to model manufacturing processes such as pumping materials through pipes and tubes.  In particular for topical products, understanding thixotropic properties are important during application onto and penetration through skin that may affect efficacy.

Figure 1 shows two creams after being subjected to a brief increased shear have different rebuild curves that may effect product properties and performance.

Figure 2 is a simple example of designed thixotropy - toothpaste. The product stays in the tube until the squeeze force (yield stress) is achieved and product flows, yet quickly rebuilds to remain on the toothbrush.  Ketchup and paint are also thixotropic materials.

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Example of 3-step thixotropy assay to quantify rebuilding after shear thinning.